PSR 1257+12

Artist impression by NASA/JPL-Caltech

PSR 1257+12

Star details
  • Constellation: the Maiden
  • Vmag: Unknown
  • Visibility: Unknown
  • Number of Planets: 3

Planet details

PSR 1257+12 b

  • Mass (Jupiters): 7e-05
  • Mass (Earths): 0.022
  • Period (days): 25.26
  • Semi Major Axis (AU): 0.19

PSR 1257+12 c

  • Mass (Jupiters): 0.01
  • Mass (Earths): 4.1
  • Period (days): 66.54
  • Semi Major Axis (AU): 0.36

PSR 1257+12 d

  • Mass (Jupiters): 0.01
  • Mass (Earths): 3.8
  • Period (days): 98.21
  • Semi Major Axis (AU): 0.46

Proposed names

Star name / planet name Proposed names
PSR 1257+12 Fyren
The star and the planets are named after characters in Tove Jansson’s book “Moominpappa at Sea”. In the novel, the Moomin family leaves the Moomin Valley to take residence on a small, desolate island featuring a prominent lighthouse. Pulsars, like PSR 1257+12, can be seen as Nature’s galactic lighthouses. The star is thus proposed to be named “Fyren”, Swedish for “The Lighthouse”. The three planets of the pulsar are then named after other main characters: The innermost planet “Lillamy” after “Lilla My” (“Little My” in English), smaller and quicker than the others. In the middle “Mumin” (“Moomintrollet”), a central character binding together the story. And then the outsider “Mårran” (“The Groke”), slowly orbiting the island and observing the developments from afar.
Tove Jansson (1914-2001) was a Swedish-speaking Finnish author best known for her Moomin books for children.
PSR 1257+12 b Lillamy
The innermost planet “Lillamy” after “Lilla My” (“Little My” in English), smaller and quicker than the others.
PSR 1257+12 c Mumin
In the middle “Mumin” (“Moomintrollet”), a central character binding together the story.
PSR 1257+12 d Mårran
And then the outsider “Mårran” (“The Groke”), slowly orbiting the island and observing the developments from afar.

This is a re-resubmission because the order of the proposed planet names as they appear on the NameExoWorlds site now is incorrect.
b = innermost = "Lillamy"
c = middle = "Mumin"
d = outermost = "Mårran"

Star name / planet name Proposed names
PSR 1257+12 Lich
Pulsars, like PSR 1257+12, are highly magnetized neutron stars, i.e. the end product of very massive stars that died as a supernova. In other words pulsars are the corpses of a once massive stars which "refuse to die": even though the star is technically dead (no fusion), the pulsar still emits electromagnetic radiation. It can be considered undead, or a zombie „star".
A "lich" is an undead character in fantasy fiction, oftentimes depicted with a skeletal body. In addition, lichs also hold power over other undead creatures.
As the pulsar is undead, „skeletal" in form (after all the only thing that remains is the core of the former star) and holds power over the other planets (because the planets are bound in an orbit around the pulsar) „lich“ is an adequate name to describe this stellar cor(ps)e.
PSR 1257+12 b Draugr
The draugr (literally meaning „again-walker“) are undead creatures in Norse mythology.
The theory of planet formation assumes that planets around pulsars probably formed in a second round of planet formation using the debris of the supernova explosion. Therefore, the debirs (gas and dust) that previously made up the star is now „walking again“ in the form of a planet that is orbiting around the stellar remnant.
PSR 1257+12 c Poltergeist
The planets around this pulsar were not detected directly but indirectly using the so called „pulsar timing“ method, i.e. the change of the „pulsation“ period of the pulsar induced by the planets which orbit around it. These variations can be measured with accurate and precise timing measurements.
A poltergeist is a type of ghost that creates physical disturbances (noise, levitating objects, etc.) similar to the disturbances this planet creates in the pulsation period of its host „star". Even though the poltergeist itself is invisible (as is the planet orbiting the pulsar) we can see its effects it has on its surroundings (change in period).
PSR 1257+12 d Phobetor
Phobetor (meaning „frightening“) was one of the three dream gods in greek mythology; the personification of nightmares.
Before their discovery, astronomers expected planets around pulsars only in their wildest dreams/nightmares. They did not expect planets to survive a violent supernova, or that they could form out of the supernova remnant.
Since this planet experienced a rather nightmarish formation process and it is how I would expect our Earth to look like in a nightmare, Phobetor is a fitting name.

PSR 1257+12, a dead but still active stellar cor(ps)e, is a nightmarish place which is why all names have references to ghosts, zombies or undead creatures.

Star name / planet name Proposed names
PSR 1257+12 Hubris
The gods punish those mortals that show hubris, the quality of excessive pride and self confidence. Hubris is a pulsar sending out an intense blast of radio energy that bathes its planets in punishing radiation with each pulse.

The host star (Hubris) is observable from both hemispheres of the Earth, including both the island of Icaria (in Greece), as well as Poland, the home country of discoverer A. Wolszczan. Hubris is also visible from Australia, home of the proposing organisation.
PSR 1257+12 b Gymnasia
Gymnasia and Musica are goddesses personifying the times of day. Gymnasia is the patron goddess of the morning hour of education and exercise and her sister Musica is the patron of the third hour of the day reserved for music and study, which ties nicely to the fact that the planets Musica and Gymnasia are in an approximate mean-motion resonance of 2:3, dancing around their parent star Hubris in connected movement.

Traditionally, Gymnasia and Musica are the daughters of Chronos, the personification of time. The precise measurement of the intense radio pulses from their parent star, Hubris, led to the discovery of a slight variation in pulse times resulting from their connected dance, which in turn led to the discovery of this pair of roughly equally sized harmonic sisters, so it is fitting that their names are also connected to time.
PSR 1257+12 c Musica
Gymnasia and Musica are goddesses personifying the times of day. Gymnasia is the patron goddess of the morning hour of education and exercise and her sister Musica is the patron of the third hour of the day reserved for music and study, which ties nicely to the fact that the planets Musica and Gymnasia are in an approximate mean-motion resonance of 2:3, dancing around their parent star Hubris in connected movement.

Traditionally, Gymnasia and Musica are the daughters of Chronos, the personification of time. The precise measurement of the intense radio pulses from their parent star, Hubris, led to the discovery of a slight variation in pulse times resulting from their connected dance, which in turn led to the discovery of this pair of roughly equally sized harmonic sisters, so it is fitting that their names are also connected to time.
PSR 1257+12 d Icaria
The innermost of the three pulsar planets, Icaria, is named after a small Greek island (37° 35' N 26° 10' E) in the Aegean Sea, which in turn is linked to the ancient story of Icarus, who flew too close to the intense radiation of the Sun with wings made of wax.

This tiny planet with a close orbit (semi major axis of just 0.19 AU) is bathed with an intense punishing radiation from Hubris, which is a pulsating radio source left after a violent supernova.

Icaria is chosen as the name of this tiny planet instead of Icarus to ensure the names of Hubris' three planets are connected in sound and pronunciation as well as through Greek mythology.

The tradition of naming Solar System objects from ancient mythology is one that has helped highlight the mystery and attraction of distant worlds, something that is only strengthened for the distant planets being named by the International Astronomical Union through this process.

Star name / planet name Proposed names
PSR 1257+12 Nozomi
This planetary system was discovered in 1992.
And the fixed star of this planetary system rotates very fast.
It was in 1992 that the Shinkansen “Nozomi” started running in Japan.
The Shinkansen is one of the most popular high-speed railways in the world.
Also, the Shinkansen’s high-speed suits the qualities of this fixed star.
“Nozomi” means hope in Japanese.
So, we named this fixed star “Nozomi”.
PSR 1257+12 b Komachi
This planet is tiny compared with other planets of this planetary system.
“Komachi” is the name of the smallest Shinkansen, so it suits this small planet.
“Komachi” means small town in Japanese.
So, we named this planet “Komachi”.
PSR 1257+12 c Hikari
This planet is very big.
“Hikari” is a very popular and most historical Shinkansen in Japan.
“Hikari” means warmth and light in Japanese.
So, we named this planet “Hikari”.
PSR 1257+12 d Sakura
“Sakura” means cherry blossom.
All Japanese people love cherry blossoms which symbolize Japan.
The planet is big.
Also the Shinkansen named “Sakura” runs a very long rout.
So, “Sakura” reminds us that this planet is very big.
Star name / planet name Proposed names
PSR 1257+12 collialbani
This name identifies a huge volcanic complex right on the south area of Rome, Italy. On the top of the volcain several ruins of thousand-year old towns have been found,
some of them even from the bronze-age. On the Monte Cavo (one of the tallest peaks) there were an important roman temple consacrated to the god "Jupiter Latiaris". The eruptive rocks on this volcain
have shaped some of the famous 7 hills on which the imperial Rome has been then erected.
PSR 1257+12 b maschiofaete
This is the tallest peak of the Colli Albani group. With its 956m above sea level is easily recognizable even from Rome.
These high ground are constituted by the deposits of an ancient quaternary volcano, whose last eruption was around 27000 years ago and of which remains today still the base.
PSR 1257+12 c montecavo
This is the second tallest mountain of the Colli Albani volcanic group. It was a sacred mountain since the pre-roman civilization and Romans have erected the Jupiter Latiaris on it.
PSR 1257+12 d montepeschio
The third tallest peak of the Colli Albani group is on the second ring of mountains around the Vulcano Laziale.

The Associazione Tuscolana di Astronomia (in short ATA) is located on the opposite side of the Colli Albani volcanic group of mountains with respect to Rome and that shields our telescopes from the Rome light pollution.

Star name / planet name Proposed names
PSR 1257+12 Shumba
Shumba - Lion in Shona

The system, as a whole, relates to the lion as the lion is often represented as the king of the animals and represents the animal kingdom as a whole. Likewise the name of the system represents all its constituent parts. The most important aspect of a system is it's star. The radiation from the star can thus be symbolic of the lion's mane.
PSR 1257+12 b Chui
Chui – Leopard in Swahili

The leopard is the smallest of the Big Five and also the quickest and most nimble. In this way it resembles this planet as it is the smallest planet in the system and has the fastest orbit.
PSR 1257+12 c Ndlovu
Ndlovu – Elephant in Xhosa

We chose to name the second last planet after the elephant because it is the largest planet in the system, as is the elephant in the Big Five. It displays features of the matriarch elephant. These features include: a protective quality (being near the outer ring of the system so as to ‘watch over’ her herd), the size (the matriarch is generally the one of the largest elephants in the herd), and the speed, taking a long time to orbit the star.
PSR 1257+12 d Linare
Linare – Buffalo in Sesotho

Like the last planet in the system, the buffalo is large creature. It travels at a steady pace, like the last planet in its orbit around the star. Male buffalo are also known to bring up the rear and protect the herd from predators. Similarly the outer planet protects the inner planets from debris that may try to enter the system.

Our idea came about when trying to think of how to connect this system to our country. The Big Five is a well-known icon and always the first thing anyone looks for in South Africa’s wild backyard. Unfortunately, one of The Big Five, the rhinoceros has become increasingly endangered. Should conservation efforts fail, and the rhino go extinct, the system will serve as a sad reminder of a once majestic creature being no more. It will be evidence and a warning of how important it is to also look to our own world. BUT … if the rhino is saved from extinction, then PSR 1257+12 will stand testament to the good work that humankind can do on Earth when we share a common goal.

South Africa is also known to be unique in its vast number of national languages. We have chosen to name each celestial object in a different African language, promoting our our diverse and rich culture. Some of the African languages we have chosen are from different African countries, as the big five animals are symbolic of the whole continent and not just our country. The names are; Shumba, Chui, Ndlovu and Linare. Translated to English these animals are the lion, leopard, elephant and buffalo respectively.

This system is found in The Maiden constellation, Virgo, where the maiden can be seen as Mother Nature looking over her creation. Virgo is also visible from the Southern Hemisphere.

Youtube Link
Star name / planet name Proposed names
PSR 1257+12 Photo
Photo is the Greek word for light. Since it is a pulsar that releases two beams of light, Photo would be suitable as a name that emphasizes the beams of light the pulsar emits.
PSR 1257+12 b Lofío
Since b is the least massive exoplanet ever discovered, the Greek word for a plume fits. Naming the least dense exoplanet after a feather honestly seems suitable.
PSR 1257+12 c Xekiní̱ste
Since this is one of the first exoplanets discovered, the Greek word for start fits. This name signifies the start of a new era in finding planets outside of our solar system.
PSR 1257+12 d Amydrós
Since it is the outermost planet in the system, it has the longest orbit; it blocks the light beams the most. So for that reason, the Greek word for dim fits, as it dims out the pulsar beams the most.
Star name / planet name Proposed names
PSR 1257+12 Falzares
Name of the greedy king of the Fanes people in the Ladin legend of Dolasila. He eventually betrayed his people and was transformed into rock for his evil deeds.
PSR 1257+12 b Spina de Mul
Name of a mighty wizard and enemy of Dolasila in the Ladin legend of Dolasila. Spina de Mul means "skeleton of a mule" and that was the shape he generally appeared as.
PSR 1257+12 c Luianta
Princess of the people of Fanes and sister of Dolasila in the Ladin legend of Dolasila.
PSR 1257+12 d Dolasila
Daughter of the king of Fanes in the Ladin legend of Dolasila. She was an almost invincible warrior, who fought in many glorious battles together with her ally Ey de Net against her wizard enemy Spina de Mul. Finally, however, the king betrayed his people and Dolasila perished, struck by her own unerring arrows. For his evil deeds the king was transformed into rock.

The proposed names are drawn from the Ladin myth of the people of Fanes, a nation who in ancient times are thought to have lived in the Dolomites, a mountain range in South Tyrol that is part of the UNESCO natural world heritage. Dolasila and Luianta were daughters of the avaricious king of Fanes. Dwarfes endowed Dolasila with a white suit of armour and unerring silver arrows, thus making her an almost invincible warrior. Together with her ally, Ey de Net, she fought in many battles against her wizard enemy Spina de Mul. Finally, however, the king betrayed his people and Dolasila perished, struck by her own arrows. For his evil deeds the king was transformed into rock. He can still be seen in nowadays at pass Falzares, which means "false king" in the Ladin language.

We chose these names, since the realm of Fanes, the Dolomites, lie south of Bruneck and many pupils from the Ladin minority attend our school. The name of the petrified king seems to us the perfect match for a neutron star. The myth holds many additional names ready for future discoveries at PSR1257+12.

To learn more about the myth of the people of Fanes, visit http://astrocusanus.org/nameexoworlds.html.

Ira Morawetz (16), David Niederkofler (16), René Nardi (15), Jonathan Seeber (16) and Christof Wiedemair (teacher), members of the astronomy group of the "Cusanusgymnasium Bruneck".

Youtube Link
Star name / planet name Proposed names
PSR 1257+12 Gravitas
Gravitas is one of the virtues of ancient Roman culture. It was intended as the quality of reliable people, and it derives from the Latin term for weight. A neutron star like PSR 1257+12 certainly has a remarkable gravitas. Furthermore, the notorious stability of the pulsar's pulse is what made the discovery of its planets possible by the timing method, including one (PSR 1257+12 b) so small to be comparable to the Earth's Moon: another hint to the reliability of this star, that deserves the name of Gravitas.
PSR 1257+12 b Trivia
One of the smallest planets ever found, Trivia is named after one of the ancient Roman appellatives for the Moon. This Moon-sized planet deserves recognition for being more similar to the Earth's Moon than any other planet. Its name may sound diminutive, "trivial", however it hints at how this tiny planet may feel insignificant, trapped as it is in the powerful gravity - and radiation - field of the Gravitas pulsar. In Latin, Trivia was related to the three ways the Moon was supposed to move (height, width, length), reminding of the strong gravitational perturbations this planet is subjected to.
PSR 1257+12 c Antevorta
In Roman mythology Antevorta was the goddess of the future, opposed to Postvorta, goddess of the past. Being faster than its sister planet Antevorta (PSR 1257+12 d), Antevorta runs ahead of it, while circling the pulsar Gravitas in a 3:2 resonance with Postvorta. Every three loops made by Antevorta, Postvorta only completes two orbits: three years pass on Antevorta every two years on Postvorta. Its calendar scrolls faster, as if, from Postvorta's perspective, Antevorta were projected into the future.
PSR 1257+12 d Postvorta
In Roman mythology Postvorta was the goddess of the past, opposed to Antevorta, goddess of the future. Being slower than its sister planet Antevorta (PSR 1257+12 c), Postvorta lags behind it, while circling the pulsar Gravitas in a 2:3 resonance with Antevorta. Every two loops completed by Postvorta, Antevorta makes three orbits: two years pass on Postvorta every three years on Antevorta. Its calendar scrolls more slowly, as if, from Antevorta's perspective, Postvorta were confined to the past.

Surprising all astronomers, the pulsar PSR 1257+12 was the first actual "Sun" discovered outside the Solar System, back in 1992. Its three planets were the very first exoplanets ever found. This controversial yet iconic discovery deserves to be celebrated with names linking it to ancient myths, given also the extraordinarily challenging environment that a pulsar reserves to its orbiting worlds. Taken from ancient Roman mythology, the names that the Planetarium of Rome chose for this unusual planetary system suitably describe in one word the different characteristics of its members. At the center of the system shines Gravitas, the pulsar: neutron stars hold the strongest gravity field among all stars. Gravitas is the Latin virtue of reliability. Its innermost planet (PSR 1257+12 b) is comparable to the Earth's Moon rather than to other planets: Trivia is a proper name for it, being one of the lesser known Roman nicknames for the Moon. Two super Earths move farther away from Gravitas, in a 3:2 orbital resonance. Their combined dance around Gravitas follows a perpetual rhythm that resembles the ticking of two different clocks marking the pace of time, one faster, one slower. Antevorta (PSR 1257+12 c) and Postvorta (PSR 1257+12 d) are their names, as they were the Roman goddesses of the future and of the past.

Youtube Link
Star name / planet name Proposed names
PSR 1257+12 Dice
In Greek mythology, Dice was the goddess of justice. According to Hesiod, she had two sisters: Eunomia (Order of Law) and Eirene (Peace) and a daughter named Hesychia (Tranquility of the Mind). These names are appropriate for several reasons. Dice was said to have lived on Earth during Cronus’ reign and the Golden Age of mankind, dispensing wisdom and justice. When Zeus overthrew Cronus, mankind descended into violence, theft and war. Unable to bear the sins of humanity, Dice abandoned Earth during the Iron Age, flying away to heaven to become the constellation Virgo. This metaphor is appropriate both for neutron star creation (which occurs from a supernova when a star attempts to unsuccessfully fuse iron) and for its association with the Virgo constellation (the location of the pulsar).
Hesychia, as the daughter of Dice, belongs closest to her, and so we propose this name for the innermost planet. Eunomia and Eirene are proposed for the larger planets as they were first to be discovered, are both similar in size, and orbit in a 3:2 orbital resonance - a good metaphor for the balanced triad of Dice, Eunomia and Eirene representing goddesses of law and order. As the first planetary system with confirmed exoplanets, this system deserves names that are commensurate with its historical status – which we believe these names to be.
PSR 1257+12 b Hesychia
Hesychia, as the daughter of Dice, belongs closest to her, and so we propose this name for the innermost planet.
PSR 1257+12 c Eirene
Eunomia and Eirene are proposed for the larger planets as they were first to be discovered, are both similar in size, and orbit in a 3:2 orbital resonance - a good metaphor for the balanced triad of Dice, Eunomia and Eirene representing goddesses of law and order.
PSR 1257+12 d Eunomia
Eunomia and Eirene are proposed for the larger planets as they were first to be discovered, are both similar in size, and orbit in a 3:2 orbital resonance - a good metaphor for the balanced triad of Dice, Eunomia and Eirene representing goddesses of law and order.

We would like to propose the name Dice for this pulsar and Hesychia, Eirene and Eunomia for planets b, c and d respectively.

References:
1. Greene, L., 1985, “The Astrology of Fate”, pub. Weiser Books.
2. Parada, C., 1997, “Genealogical Guide to Greek Mythology”, pub. Paul Astroms forlog / Astrom Editions.
3. Ridpath, I., 1989, “Star Tales”, pub. Lutterworth Press Cambridge.

Star name / planet name Proposed names
PSR 1257+12 Rock'n'Roll Star
A rhythmically dancing star that has Rockie, Andie and Rollie.
PSR 1257+12 is a pulsar in the constellation of the Maiden and it has three planets.
One is a very small rocky planet, the other two are also terrestrial-mass planets.
We would like to name these three planets, Rockie, Andie and Rollie.
And the star becomes Rock And Roll Star,that is, Rock'n'Roll Star in short to make it one word. As the star is a pulsating radio star that is spinning rapidly with a beam of electromagnetic radiation which makes us imagine the stage of rock and roll musicians,
we propose the name with the nuance of a rhythmically dancing star like a rock'n'roll star, with full of dazzling flash lights.
PSR 1257+12 b Rockie
A rocky planet'
'PSR 1257+12 b' is a very small rocky planet, that is only twice the mass of the Moon.
So we would like to name it Rockie.
We chose Rockie instead of Rocky because the constellation is Maden (Virgo) and it seems that girly names suit the star and the planets.
PSR 1257+12 c Andie
PSR 1257+12 c is also a small terrestrial-mass (about 4 times) planet which seems as if the small dancer going around the pulsar with her lovely(?) sisters, Rockie and Rollie
PSR 1257+12 d Rollie
PSR 1257+12 d is another small terrestrial-mass (also about 4 times) planet. We would like to propose 'Rollie' for this planet as the sister of Rockie and Andie. And the three planets become Rockie, Andie, Rollie.
Just imagine these three small planets are rotating and revolving around the pulsar mother singing on the stage.

We do hope this name to be approved.
PLEASE accept our great enthusiasm.
If it is approved, many people will become interested in astronomy!

Youtube Link
Star name / planet name Proposed names
PSR 1257+12 Regina apis
Regina apis is Latin. Meaning of the queen bee.
It was named from where it seems to be reigning in the center of the swarm.
In addition, the needle with the bees, the image of a sharp pulse of PSR1257 + 12.
PSR 1257+12 b Punica malus
Punica malus is Latin.Meaning of the Pomegranate.
Appeared in the mythology of Virgo, was named because it is a symbol of fertility.
Like there are countless red flesh, the image of the queen bee has led a lot of worker bees.
PSR 1257+12 c Tillia
Tillia is Latin.Meanig of the Linden.
Linden tree the size of the tolerance and the tree that will accept all that has, it was likened to the planet the size of PSR1257 + 12.
In addition, flowers are nectar of honey.
PSR 1257+12 d Laurus
Laurus is Latin. Meanig of the Laurel.
Large constellation in the second in the whole sky, Virgo.
To honor the first planet found in exoplanets, with great meaning to give the laurel wreath.
The laurel wreath also from the image that women are wearing the head.

A pulsar has a planet!
I checked target planetary system, and it was this pulsar that the 20th of the last showed.
I was shocked very much, and a head became blank. However, I felt very interesting.
Besides, there were some planetary system that was interesting, but it was this pulsar that stayed till the last.
The pulsar let you image the sharp needle which a bee had contrary to the pretty name called Virgo.
The pomegranate concerning Virgo felt that the dark red color had the enigmatic atmosphere of the pulsar, and the small fruit seemed to express the size of the planet.
In two left big planets, it is a linden tree and a laurel.
Because the honey of the linden tree was delicious and felt gallantness such as the "glory" "victory" from a laurel.
It was difficult to express this powerful pulsar and pretty Virgo well, but feels it when it was for the name that you can image with both.